Thursday, July 9, 2020

Study On The Retail Industry In India - Free Essay Example

Many changes have occurred in the marketing environment in recent years. Undoubtedly, the marketing environment will continue to evolve and change, often in very significant ways, in the coming years. Shifts in consumer behavior, competitive strategies, government regulations or other aspects of the marketing environment can profoundly affect the fortunes of a retail sector. Besides these external forces, the industries may engage in a variety of activities and changes in strategic focus or direction that may necessitate minor or major adjustments. The research aim is to highlight the current situation of the Indian Retail Industry as well as to provide facts and figures regarding the probable loopholes and the scope for augmentation. During the recent years of globalization, economies in Asia and the Pacific grew rapidly until the current global economic and financial crisis appeared in mid-2007. This acceleration of growth, in which international trade has played an important role, has helped Asian and Pacific countries to make impressive strides in economic development (ESCAP, 2009). At the same time, empirical evidence suggests that in some supply-constrained larger economies in Asia and the Pacific, such as China, India and Indonesia, wealth through trade has been accompanied by rise in inequality. The basic aim of the paper would be to analyz e the retail industry in India and to understand the issues prevailing in this industry and the future prospective of the retail industry. The aim of the paper would be to answer the following research questions; Is Indian retail industry sustainable? How does the Indian retail industry compete with the industries all around the World? Is the retail industry more beneficial than other industries in India? Does the involvement of government in this industry is satisfactory? What improvements could be made in the Indian retail industry ? The Literature Review Like some other retail industries the Indian industry is divided in two sectors i.e. organised and unorganized one. The organised portion deals with the trading activities practiced while possessing licenses and having registrations for sales and income tax. This division includes corporate backed hypermarkets and retail chains and the privately owned large retail businesses. Secondly, the unorganized one who practices traditional style of low-cost retailing like grocery stores named as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Kiriana Storesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?, general stores, Paan / Beedi shops, convince stores, hand carts and pavement, vendors, etc. Moreover, the traditional markets are preparing to adopt new designs like departmental stores, specialty stores and supermarkets. The Indian retail sector is greatly split with 97 % of its being executed by the unorganized retailers like the traditional family run stores and corner stores. The organized retail however is at a very embryonic stage although efforts are being made to boost its share. The sector is the largest source of employment after agriculture, and has deep penetration into rural India generating more than 10 % of Indiaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s GDP. The fact of Chinaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s retail sector becoming saturated, international retailers considers India as the last retailing frontier left. Though, the Indian Government restrictions on the FDI are creating uncertainties among the international players like Walmart, Tesco and many other retail giants struggling to enter Indian markets. As of now the Government has allowed only 51 per cent FDI in the sector to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"one-brandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ shops like Nike, Reebok etc. Therefore, other international players are taking alternative ways to pierce the Indian retail market indirectly via strategic licensing agreement, franchisee agreement and cash and carry wholesale trading (since 100 per cent FDI is allowed in wholesale trading). The structure of Indian retail is emerging swiftly with shopping malls becoming increasingly common in the large cities and development plans being projected at 150 new shopping malls by 2008. However, the traditional formats like hawkers, grocers and tobacconist shops continue to co-exist with the modern formats of retailing. Modern retailing has helped the companies to increase the consumption of their products for example: Indian consumers would normally consume the rice sold at the nearby kiranas viz. Kolam for daily use. With the introduction of organized retail, it has been noticed that the sale of Basmati rice has gone up by four times than it was a few years back; as a superior quality rice (Basmati) is now available at almost the same price as the normal rice at a local kirana. Thus, the way a product is displayed and promoted influences its sales. If the consumption continues to grow this way it can be said that the local market would go through a metamorphoses of a change and the local stores would soo n become the things of the past or restricted to last minute unplanned buying. Research Methodology Introduction This section spells out the procedures and the methods that the researcher can employ in achieving the objectives of the project so highlighted in the abstract of this paper. It defines location of the study, research procedures and analysis plan that would be put in consideration when carrying out this particular research. The research is supposed to start with the clear understanding of the research objectives as well as the hypothesis. Success of the project will depend on the provision of satisfying information in line with the objectives and hypothesis (Myers, 2002). The objective of the research just as a recap is to identify the effective mechanisms risk exposure and fÑ–nà Ã‚ °ncÑ–Ã Ã‚ °l policy considering the à Ã‚ °nà Ã‚ °lysÑ–s of à Ã‚ µmà Ã‚ µrgÑ–ng markets used in order to gain the competitive. It is important to note here that this research was mainly based on the questionnaire even though other research method ologies were briefly discussed. Sample questionnaire used is as shown in the appendices. Research methodology is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the data. It is a strategy or blueprint that plans the action for carrying through the research project data. A research design involves a series of rational decision-making choices depending upon the various options available to the researchers. Broadly it is composed of different elements like: the purpose of the study, the unit of analysis, time dimension, mode of observation, sampling design, observation tools, data processing, and data analysis. Mainly two techniques of research, Qualitative and quantitative are utilized. Though both of the methods have their own significance, the use of exploratory quantitative research design for this study appears to be appropriate. Research Design Research is an endless effort for truth. It certainly bring to light new knowledge or corrects previous errors and misconceptions and adds to the existing body of knowledge in an orderly manner. The research was aimed at highlighting the significance of branding for an organization and to evaluate the importance being given at pizza hut setup. This part deals with procedure adopted to conduct the study. The researcher had to depend on the related literature and structured questionnaires. Descriptive data were typically collected through a questionnaire survey, an interview or observation. Primary research. Primary research is the collection of data that does not exist. This can be through numerous forms: including questionnaires, telephone conversations, surveys, etc. As pertained to this project, the primary sources would likely be the risk exposure and fÑ–nà Ã‚ °ncÑ–Ã Ã‚ °l policy considering the à Ã‚ °nà Ã‚ °lysÑ–s of à Ã‚ µmà Ã‚ µrgÑ–ng markets. The major merit with conducting primary research is that it accurate. However, the disadvantage of primary research is that it may be time consuming, as it involves dealing with people from various regions, the human sources may only become resourceful out of their own willingness, and this may take them quit sometimes before making up their minds to tell you what they know or give you their side stories about your questions (Focardi Fabozzi, 1998). Secondary research on the other hand is the collection of existing data, that is, in contrast to primary research. For example: rese arch on experiments or specific subjects. The merit of secondary research is that ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s not time consuming however a disadvantage is that the information retrieved may not be relevant. Data Collection In research studies, the source of data is two-fold. Data comes from the inner world of libraries as well as from the outer world of human being. It is either the shelved data or it is the data acquired live from the people involved in the study. This research being in the marketing, and the prime subject of the study is retail sector, the researcher aims to collect data mainly from the respondents. After considering the various methods of data collection such as ethnographic style, survey, experimental style, and narrative enquiry, a questionnaire survey was chosen as it allows the collection of highest opinions within the time span of the project as well as the fact that the results could be accurately mapped and correlated to provide quantitative information. Choice of research philosophy Another aspect that is of great significance in this research would be the research strategy. Ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s the research strategy shows which methods a researcher adapts to answer the research objectives or questions. There are types of research strategies that can be employed in conducting a research study. These include experiments, case studies, survey, theoretical perspectives, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. It is imperative to examine some of these strategies while paying particular attention to the case study method which will be applied in this particular research. Survey is another important research strategy that has was popular in conducting this research. Surveys à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"allow the collection of a large amount of data from a large population .This implies that the researcher can conduct surveys and question specific groups of people to obtain large amount of information relevant to the subject of the survey. The data is usually collected from the people either via questionnaire or orally. The purpose of the survey was to establish and analyze views of respondents in order to find what they think about particular situation, case or statement. However, despite the fact that the views from a large number of respondents can be gathered through the survey strategy, the data obtained may not all reflect to the objective of the research at depth (Kendrick, 2009). Case study is a research strategy which involves investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon in the real life situation using multiple sources of evidence. More elaborate explanation on the nature of the case study as a research strategy was given by Frenkel, Hommel, Dufey Markus, (2005). in whose view case study represents à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"a specific way of collecting, organizing, and analyzing dataà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Grounded theory represents a strategy which posits that the data is collected through observations and compared to various theoretical frame works in order to discover which of the data is the most appropriate. This leads the researcher into making predictions about the studied phenomena prior to putting the findings into test. However, the aim of grounded theory is to make studied data records well-developed and understood and to verify relationships between the findings and the case study in question (Frenkel, Hommel, Dufey Markus, 2005). Questionnaires This research was mainly carried out by the use of a questionnaire. The questionnaire enabled the information to be gathered from many respondents who were directly involved in risk exposure and fÑ–nà Ã‚ °ncÑ–Ã Ã‚ °l policy considering the à Ã‚ °nà Ã‚ °lysÑ–s of à Ã‚ µmà Ã‚ µrgÑ–ng markets. Use of a questionnaire as a quantitative method for collecting data from the sources is the most appropriate method of collecting mass responses and as such, providing a good method of comparative analysis. The questionnaire will cover a number of data sources to find out opinions and views regarding the planning strategies required in risk exposure and fÑ–nà Ã‚ °ncÑ–Ã Ã‚ °l policy considering the à Ã‚ °nà Ã‚ °lysÑ–s of à Ã‚ µmà Ã‚ µrgÑ–ng markets. Designing good questionnaires requires significant skills and experience. The researcher embarks on the study by setting up survey question naires that address issues relevant to the interviews conducted. It is important to pilot or test the questionnaire as fully as possible before distributing them to the interviewees to fill them. A sample questionnaire is like the one shown in the appendices below. This questionnaire enabled elaborate information to be obtained from the players in the restaurant industry (Lam, 2003). Interviews In order to achieve the purpose of the investigation, the key focus lies on finding out which techniques should be applied. Interviews were the best method for understanding this research. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“A respondent interview is one where the interviewer directs the interview and the interviewer responds to the questions of the researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. And to add more weight on this observation, Borodzicz, (2004). added that the standard survey interview is itself essentially faulted and that it therefore cannot serve as the ideal ideological model against which to assess other approaches. He Borodzicz, (2004).also elaborates by describing interviews as the verbal exchange of information between two or more people for the principal purpose of one person or group gathering information from the other. And that Semi structured interviews enable one to fix and control circumstances in order to collect appropriate data while remaining flexible and responsive (Borodzicz, 2004). In or der to analyze the psychological and behavioral reasons for decisions of the sources, the collected primary data should be collected through the distribution of questionnaires. They however emphasized it is very important to note that questionnaires should reach the right people, to allow for an appropriate amount of information to be collected. Different types of interviews that the researchers may opt to apply to their studies. The three are inclusive of structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, and unstructured interviews. (Pritchard, 2005). Structured interviews consist of closed-ended questions, where the structure of the questions, responses and the interview itself is decided prior to the interview. The interviewer has more control over the responses, and can lead the interview into the direction they want. However, the responses received are limited. Semi-structured interviews consist of closed and/or open-ended questions, allowing the interviewer to have some co ntrol over the responses and the interview. Although the open-ended questions allow the interviewee to express themselves and encourage them to present their views and opinions. Unstructured interviews consist of open-ended questions that do not restrict the intervieweeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s responses, therefore collecting a wide range of information. This kind of interview is more supple in-terms of the questions being asked and their ordering, all depending upon the interviewees responses. After considering these different types of interviews, Questionnaires are considered more useful for this study. This is necessary, as it allows gaining a deeper understanding of the participantsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ views. In the usage of the interview the management of organizations in à Ã‚ µmà Ã‚ µrgÑ–ng markets were interviewed to get there view on how they operate (Silva, 1995). Data Analysis Process The process involves the researched applying reasoning in order to understand and interpret the data collected. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“In simple descriptive research, analysis may involve determining consistent patterns and summarizing the appropriate details revealed in the investigationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Zikmund, 2003, P. 73). Sectors of the market chosen to research and why you chose these sectors Use of research tools such as questionnaires, interviews, relevant journals, periodicals and data sampling and machines would be utilized in the process conducting the interview. Experts would be needed to conduct the research. In implementing the activities, both the quantitative and qualitative approaches was considered, where by qualitative data are those that would be based on the spoken words while the quantitative data would be generated from the overall data collected based of accuracy and efficiency The research project was scheduled to run for a period of one year and a few Months within which industries in à Ã‚ µmà Ã‚ µrgÑ–ng markets would be put under scrutiny and rigorous investigations to ascertain the objectives of the research. Research validity and reliability A debate about the findings of the preceding literatures on retail industry considering the à Ã‚ °nà Ã‚ °lysÑ–s of à Ã‚ µmà Ã‚ µrgÑ–ng markets inevitably includes a discussion of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"researchà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, normally referring to the way in which the data were collectedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. This research being a phenomenological, all questions are related to theoretical characteristics discussed in literature preview. The process would therefore be accurate in collecting, analyzing and sampling data; hence the validity of result would be quite high. Considering that there are many different aspects of validity, which influence the validity of the research in general. Relationship between your research aim, research questions, research objectives and research methods. The methodology which was exploited here mainly through the questionnaires and the interviews were most appropriate as they enabled the most information to be obtained. Many respondents could be reached within a short period of time while sampling enabled a comparison to be carried out on the different organizations in à Ã‚ µmà Ã‚ µrgÑ–ng markets. They helped in the real understanding on retail industry considering the à Ã‚ °nà Ã‚ °lysÑ–s of à Ã‚ µmà Ã‚ µrgÑ–ng markets has actually been carrying out its activities which have actually helped it in realizing a competitive in the market (Borodzicz, 2004). Anticipated Outcomes The retail industry in India is currently growing at a great pace and is expected to go up to US$ 833 billion by the year 2013. It is further expected to reach US$ 1.3 trillion by the year 2018. As the country has got a high growth rates, the consumer spending has also gone up and is also expected to go up further in the future. In the last four years, the consumer spending in India climbed up to 75%. As a result, the India retail industry is expected to grow further in the future days. Despite the fact that the Indian retail market is expected to grow but some challenges are still required to be addressed. These challenges include the deficiency of sufficient infrastructure amenities, elevated prices of real estate, divergence in consumer groups, tax structure, limitations in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), shortage of trained manpower and low retail management skills. The research will focus to highlight all the challenges being faced to the Indian retail market and to sugges t the strategies and methodologies to cater these challenges. The effective management of above said challenges will not only enable to achieve the projected growth in the retail sector but will also enable to enhance the factor of consistency in growth. Appropriateness of triangulation to research The essence of applying triangulation is for the sake of indications of applicability of several methods (excess of two) in the course of the study in consideration of checking double or even triples results checking otherwise known as cross examination. The idea behind the concept is for the researcher to express a high degree of confidence in consideration of the results of diverse methods that give similar results. In case a single method was applied by the researcher, there is a higher tendency of believing that the results are valid. The application of more that a single method may result to a clash of the results. The application of about three methods attempting to derive an answer may lead to a similarity of answers from two out of the three methods used. In case of an occurrence of a crash there is then a need of reframing the question (HSE, 2006). Timeline: Ghant chart Activity Weeks Week commencing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Explore literature Writing literature review Reading on methodology Writing methodology Questionnaire design Collection of qualitative data Collection of quantitative data Analysis of qualitative data Analysis of quantitative data Writing conclusion Submission of first draft Revision and submission of final draft Limitations of the research Limitations are usually present in every research and these limitations actually tarnish the results of the research. Certain limitations are also associated with this research. One of the biggest limitations of this research is lack of budget and lack of time. Besides that there are certain other limitations like the non-serious attitude of the respondents might tamper the entire results of the research. The interviews that will be conducted and the questionnaire cannot be fully utilized in this scenario because the respondents are not serious in their attitude when they are filling out the questionnaires or when they are giving the responses to the researcher. The lack of time given by the respondents can also be another limitation of this research. If the respondents have lesser time than it is highly probable that they might not take the research properly and ultimately the final results of the research would be affected in this scenario. Finally, it can be said that certain ch unks or sources of secondary research can also be treated as a limitation of the research. This is because of the fact that these sources are not valid or they are not updated therefore the data that is attained from these sources might affect the entire results of the research. Therefore, the researcher should take utmost care about all these constraints and try to minimize it.

Thursday, July 2, 2020

The Social Context of Parramatta Girls - Literature Essay Samples

Alana Valentine’s massaged verbatim play Parramatta Girls (2007) explores the experiences of women who were incarcerated into the Parramatta Girls Home. Through her eight distinct characters that she created, she gives a voice to over five hundred thousand other â€Å"Forgotten Australians† who were placed into institutionalized care between 1930 and 1970. Children were classified as either delinquent or neglected by the Children’s Court and then were taken from their friends and families and put into a home. As there were no legal barriers for a person to become employed at these institutions, male and female children alike were subjected to physical violence, sexual abuse, verbal mistreatment, and harsh punishments which had long-lasting psychological impacts. Due to its wide-spread effects, this issue has troubled the entirety of Australia, and its painful legacy continues to live on. The simple eradication of these children provided an easy solution for the A ustralian government, especially during the 1960’s, where the population at Parramatta Girls Home peaked. This is the social context from which Parramatta Girls was born, as the stories of the women and their personal experiences create the play itself. Through choice of dialogue, construction of the play, both in present times and in its flashbacks, and characterization, the play is defined by its social context. Due to the verbatim nature of Parramatta Girls, dialogue must be chosen extremely carefully. Through my own experience in developing a workshop activity for my class, I now understand this process much better. In the task, articles about the Parramatta Girls Home from the 1960’s are to be handed out and students are to cut particular words from the articles and arrange them to form a verbatim sentence. This is a direct physical representation of how social context influences the writing of a verbatim play. Valentine, in an interview with Roslyn Oades for â€Å"Parramatta Girls: Verbatim Theatre about the Forgotten Australians†, discusses the difficulty to exhibit the reality of the horrors that the women faced without desensitizing her audience, stating of her major creative challenge, â€Å"I think just not making it a litany of miserable suffering†¦Perversely, also not lightening it too much; not making it too palatable; not†¦ looking away from the horror a nd the utter shattering of lives.† The inclusion of Charlotte the Harlot Lay Dying within the play, a popular rhyme prevalent in the 1960’s in Australia, exposes the inappropriate things that the young girls were introduced to in the home. While the vulgar lyrics expose the gratuitous sexual acts, a young Melanie innocently sings the tune in a cheerful tone, which softens the initial impact upon the audience, but leaves them pondering its disturbing nature. When the play jumps to the present-day reunion, dialogue continues to reflect the hardship that these women faced, evident in Act Two Scene Twelve, when Gayle states, â€Å"I’m harder than the inside of a nun’s mattress.† Having watched this scene performed in front of me by my fellow classmates, I can admit that the use of an Australian idiom provides comedic relief for the audience, especially when the line explores a difficult topic- the long-lasting effect of a woman’s incarceration in to a home. The audience’s personal social context, that of the 2000’s, increases the impression of the atrocities that the women faced, as it is difficult to imagine in modern society such horror occurring to young and innocent children. Dissimilar to other verbatim plays, Parramatta Girls is constructed with narrative in mind, and includes constant flashbacks from the present-day reunion to the social context from which the play arose- the 1960’s, when the women were children and experiencing life in the home first-hand. When rationalizing her stylistic decision to avoid true verbatim theatre, Valentine states, â€Å"I didn’t need to capture their exact voice, I had to capture the spirit, the soul, the way of being in the world that the women were†. The flashbacks effectively achieve this, as the true and pure essence of the women, before they changed over time, are displayed. Act One Scene Six is the most powerful example of a flashback, as the strong, defiant nature of Gayle is presented to the audience, which makes the violence of her beating by the guard in the same scene all the more shocking. I have witnessed the absolute intensity of this scene, as students in my class performed it as par t of a theatre workshop. As a spectator, I supported Gayle in her decision not to kneel and wanted her to defeat the guard, but she doesn’t. Stage directions imply the brutality of the beating: â€Å"GAYLE is forced down onto the ground. She reacts as if she is taking blow after blow to the head and legs and arms and back.† As there is no actor cast to play the guard, the director and the actor of Gayle must work together to exhibit the violence as realistically as possible, which is why the use of facial expressions and gestures in this scene is so important. If an actor can use expressions of horror and pain skillfully, and jerk their body as if someone is physically abusing them, then the impact of the scene upon the audience will be much greater. This brute force imposed upon the children at the hands of those who were meant to be protecting them is characteristic of 1960’s Australian society, where rules and legislations for working in child-care were nearl y non-existent. Violence in general was more common during this time, with the use of school corporal punishment, and the prevalence of domestic violence within families. Observing this physical display of the social context of Parramatta Girls, of which the play is defined, is extremely difficult for an audience, considering the reforms of modern times. One of the most moving aspects of Parramatta Girls is Alana Valentine’s characterization, as the audience can discover the characteristics of the women as children, and then chart their progress and development into adulthood. The characterization of the women, however, are completely defined by their social context, as the words that they use as children come from the vernacular of the 1960’s. Judi’s characterization perfectly explores the long-lasting effects of the trauma faced in the institution, as she eventually changes her name and struggles to remember the difficulties that she endured throughout her incarceration. Through the flashbacks, the audience recognize Judi as a character with considerable strength, most identifiable in Act Two Scene Two, as she tells Lynette and Maree of her sexual manipulation of the guard to gain a packet of cigarettes. Her use of 1960’s slang against Lynette’s naivety further proves her toughness, â€Å"Wake up , slag. Wake up. You’re in here. They can do whatever they want to you. Whatever they want.† Although the audience understand this harder side to Judi, they also are given glimpse of her true fragility, evident in her damaged character years after the traumatic experience of living in the Parramatta Girls Home. For a class workshop, I performed Act Two Scene Four as the character of Lynette. Just as Judi dominated the scene with Lynette in the flashback, she dominated this one as well, and as the character of Lynette I had to ensure that my role was to support Judi in her expression of emotional development to the audience. This scene presents the physical suffering of Judi due to her time incarcerated, â€Å"Eighteen and a half to twenty-four. That’s when I worked in the brothels. And five. That’s how many terminations I’ve had.† Judi’s enduring emotional pain is even more disconcerting for the audience to be confronted with, as her l ack of self-worth has influenced her character, â€Å"I carried one baby full term, but it was stillborn. Which was a shame because I was going to keep her. Probably just as well for her that I didn’t.† Alana Valentine was aware of the vulnerability of the women her play would comprise of, and the delicacy with which she had to handle their authentic experiences, â€Å"†¦they are still very damaged. When I was talking to them, they would become a twelve year old child. So I had to be very careful.† This exemplifies the connection between the play and its social context, as the women continued to be affected by their circumstances in the 1960’s, and it is the women and their stories that create the play itself. Parramatta Girls is utterly and undeniably defined by its social context. Alana Valentine successfully takes the stories of real women, all of whom lived in the Parramatta Girls Home during 1960’s Australian society, and creates a poignant and healing play. For the thousands of men and women who suffered in institutionalized care, Valentine becomes a voice. Though her play is not true verbatim, but altered slightly to create a storyline, the horrific experiences presented are authentic and accurate, plucked straight from a dark period of Australian history. Through dialogue, construction, and characterization, the relationship between social context and the play become inextricable. Without the bravery of over forty women that Valentine interviewed for the purpose of writing Parramatta Girls, who fought through the pain of their trauma to share their experiences, the play would not exist.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Issues Of Early American Settlement Essay - 1157 Words

In the early settlement of America, disease and forced labor played a significant role. In the Spanish colonies from Florida and Southward, smallpox took an enormous toll on the conquerors and the native peoples. The so-called â€Å"black legend† regarding the Spanish and Portuguese was actually somewhat true, but also somewhat misleading. The concept held that â€Å"the conquerors merely butchered or tortured the Indians (‘killing for Christ’), stole their gold, infected them with smallpox, and left little but misery behind.† (Kennedy, p. 23) All of this was actually true – but that wasn’t all the conquerors did, and is therefore the error of the â€Å"black legend†. The Spanish and Portuguese conquerors built an enormous empire that spanned two†¦show more content†¦The New England colonies came into being by way of the Puritans in the 17th century – indirectly by way of the Protestant Reformation, and the subsequ ent break of the United Kingdom with the Catholic Church. A group of Puritans called the Separatists from Holland boarded the Mayflower headed for America by way of the Virginia Company of England, only to have missed their destination. They arrived off the coast of New England in 1620. (Kennedy p. 44) The climate was so inhospitably cold, that less than half of the surviving crew of the Mayflower actually survived the first winter. New England then began to become populated with Dutch and English settlers. â€Å"Whereas English immigration to the Chesapeake was spread over nearly a century, most English voyagers to New England arrived within a single decade.† (Kennedy, p. 51) The Dutch funneled into New Amsterdam, which became New York after England won a battle with the Dutch. It was the Dutch who purchased Manhattan Island from the Indians for trinkets. Pennsylvania was created with a Quaker religious ideology by a land grant inherited by William Penn. Each region seems to have its own unique distinction during this period. 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Some supported local public places and others passed lawsRead MoreHistory of Social Work1714 Words   |  7 Pagespolicies and programs with significant historical changes occurring and a shift in religious and political views allowing these changes to benefit members of society and address social issues. Key events such as the Elizabethan Poor Law, the industrial revolution, the first charity organised society (COS) and the settlement movement were established mainly in the United Kingdom however similar models were then adapted in the United States and Australia. Pioneering members of society helped advocate forRead MoreReligion in Todays Society994 Words   |  4 Pagesdeveloping culture of early America. This inf ormation was developed to help ESL students gain a better understanding of American religious culture. Faith as part of Government In the early history of America there were a combination of settlements that had differing religious beliefs. In this article we are going to take a look at some of the religious culture implications of having faith as a governmental rule. We will also aim to educate those who may be new to the American culture and who may

international marketing case 2-7 McDonalds obesity Essay

International marketing Case 2-7 Q1) How should McDonalds respond when ads promoting healthy lifestyles featuring Ronald McDonald are equated with Joe camel and cigarette ads? Should McDonalds eliminate Ronald McDonald in its ads? A1) in my opinion, changing the character Ronald or eliminating it is not the answer, the answer is for McDonalds to emphasis that cigarettes are always harmful, in contrast McDs menu has a variety of healthy options, so the comparison is wrong because it is of totally different types. Mac can/should target its Ronald to do more advertisements for healthy food and nutrition, they can also label their food with the amount of fat, cholesterol, sugar, and other nutritional values; another suggestion is†¦show more content†¦The obesity rate cannot rapidly fall, it will take some time because parents’ lifestyle should modify as well as children’s’ eating style should also change. Less traditional food and having less physical work in developed countries, especially in Scandinavian countries where there is less working hours. The children’s’ obesity becomes a very big problem worldwide. Q4) the broad issue facing McDonalds in the UK is the current attitude towars rising obesity. The company seems to have tried many different approaches to deal with the problem, but the problem persists. List all the problems facings McDonalds critique its various approaches to solving the problem. A4) Problems: Some say that the fast food portion sizes are partly to blame. Some people say advertising is to blame, especially ads aimed at children Solution: ad campaigns aimed at kids featuring Ronald McDonald and animated vegetable and fruit animations. McDonalds corp. later issued a statement claiming that many nutritionists believe they their meals can fit into a balanced diet. Using positive lifestyle messages in ads. McDonalds changed menu with items such as porridge, smoothies and chicken wraps is on reason for the growing business Q5) Develop a long term plan and a short term plan for McDonalds. A5) long term plan is for Mc to enhance its perceived picture in the minds ofShow MoreRelatedMarketing Plan For A New Product / Service3939 Words   |  16 PagesIntroduction 2 Task 1 (LO1) 4 Using appropriate marketing audit frameworks identify and analyse MacDonald’s micro and macro-environments in order to determine the key factors that can influence McDonald’s marketing activities and their likely implications on the firm 4 Task 2 (LO2) 7 Explain the potential barriers to McDonald’s marketing planning activities and propose solutions for overcoming the barriers identified. 7 Task 3 (LO3) 9 Based on your analysis in Task 1, develop a marketing plan for theRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility8358 Words   |  34 Pageson’.[2] Given that socially responsible organizations should seek ‘minimize their negative impacts and maximize their positive impacts’, the fast food industry provides an important context in which to debate the issue of corporate social responsibility. While the influence of myriad factors, including increasing sedentary lifestyles, on obesity is acknowledged by some researchers some argue that rising obesity can also be linked to the fast food industry.[1] Generally speaking, obesity is anRead MoreEssay on McDonalds Case Study1565 Words   |  7 PagesMcDonalds Case Study Company overview McDonalds Corporation is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, breakfasts and soft drinks. More recently, it also offers salads, fruit, snack wraps, and carrot sticks. The business began in 1940, with a restaurant opened by brothers Dick and Mac McDonald in San Bernardino, California. Their introduction of the Speedee Service System in 1948 established the principles of the modernRead MoreCase Study : Strategic Management Of Mcdonald s2152 Words   |  9 Pages Case study: strategic management of McDonald’s Content Executive summary 2 Introduction 2 PESTEL analysis 3 Political Factors 3 Economic Factors 4 Socio-Cultural Factors 4 Technological Factors 4 Environmental Factors 5 Legal Factors 5 SWOT analysis 6 Strengths 6 Weakness 7 Opportunities 7 Threats 8 Conclusion 10 Reference 11 Executive summary To check how the strategic management is practiced in the organization, McDonald’s has been taken as an example. In this essay, the general environmentRead MoreUnit 19 Assignment Brief Marketing Planning February 2014 moderated by NN3857 Words   |  16 PagesICON COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Pearson BTEC Level 5 HND in Business (QCF) Unit 19: Marketing Planning (QCF. L5) Session February 2014 Course work (Word limit 3500) HND Assignment Brief Programme title ML955 Pearson BTEC Level 5 HND in Business Unit number and title Unit 19 Marketing Planning Assignment number and title 1 of 1 McDonald’s: Repositioning the Golden Arches Mo Willan Module Leader Student name Assessor (receiving the work) Dr Mo Willan, Richard West, Abu NaserRead MoreMcdonald‘S Business Strategy Essay4719 Words   |  19 Pages................................................................................5 2. Introduction...............................................................................6 2.1 Background.............................................................................................6 2.2 History†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.6 3. McDonald’s Mission, Aim and Objectives................................7 4. Review of the McDonald’s current strategic position†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..8 5. Desired future strategicRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility Of Mcdonald s Corporation2080 Words   |  9 Pagessurvey has found that nutritionists has said that McDonalds’s does not claim to be a health food shop, but there are healthier options available for consumers that are more health conscious. For example, a nutritionist said, â€Å"If you have to eat McDonalds, pick something that will actually fill you up and add some fruit and a side salad.† (, 2015) McDonald’s has also been highly focusing on children wellbeing by taking a thoughtful approach by contributing positively to the balanced lifestyleRead MoreMcdonalds Strategic Analysis12693 Words   |  51 Pages* MCDONALD’S, THE SIMPLE JOY OF BURGERS. TABLE OF CONTENTS MCDONALD’S, THE SIMPLE JOY OF BURGERS. 1 1 ABSTRACT 3 2 COMPANY INTRODUCTION 4 3 FAST FOOD INDUSTRY ANALYSIS 5 3.1 Franchising Industry Analysis 6 3.2 The Industry Future Perspective 7 3.3 Industry PESTEL Framework Analysis 9 3.3.1 Political Aspects 9 3.3.2 Economic Aspects 9 3.3.3 Social Aspects 9 3.3.4 Technological Aspects 10 3.3.5 Environmental Aspects 11 3.3.6 Legal Aspects 11 4 Mcdonald’s CompanyRead MoreMcdonald’s Essay2988 Words   |  12 PagesTeam Work 03-05-2013 BUS 500F Professor: Assael Students: Chloe – question 1,4, and 6 Elva – question 3,5 and 7 Emily – question 2 and 8 Chapter 8 Question 1. How do you account for the reluctance of competitors to imitate the successful efforts of another firm in their industry? Under what circumstances is imitation likely to be embraced? There is much reluctance of competitors to imitate the successful efforts of another firmRead MoreMcdonalds Value Chain Analysis5751 Words   |  24 Pages2010 Management Information System: McDonald’s case study Idris Sugiarto (21671532) McDonald’s is no doubt the world’s most powerful brand in quick service restaurant industry in terms of market share and brand value. Committed in quality, service, cleanliness, and value, McDonald’s must deliver its product to consumers with consistency and efficiency. This report will explore how McDonald’s corporation maintains its operational excellence through support from integration of sophisticated technologies

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Non Fiscal Barriers And The Free Movement Of The European...

This question concerns non-fiscal barriers to the free movement of goods in the European Union. Issues concerning Articles 34,35 or 36 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) are raised and Brian’s potential claim is against France as the Member State who has enacted measures which may restrict imports and exports, thereby violating the Treaty. Firstly, considering the licence required by French legislation to import PS’s, this could amount to a selling arrangement which is defined in the case of Keck as rules that concern who sells the product and when, where and how they go about it. Those selling arrangements which apply equally in law and fact will not invoke Article 34 TFEU. As the product, the PS, in not directly affected, the requirement of a licence may be a selling arrangement . However the selling arrangement does not apply equally in law and fact because there is no licence requirement mentioned for domestic producers of PSs . As the li cence discriminates against imports, this may invoke Article 34 and it is likely to be a measure equivalent to a quantitative restriction (MEQR). MEQRs were defined in Dessonville as â€Å"All trading rules capable of hindering, directly or indirectly, actually or potentially, intra-Community trade† . In other words, an MEQR applies only to imports and not to everyone. As the licence is an additional requirement for imported PSs, and applications are only considered once a year in August, it makes imports moreShow MoreRelatedThe Benefits Of United Kingdom1408 Words   |  6 PagesThis essay will answer the essay topic on Economic Integration and discuss the extent to which the benefits of United Kingdom (UK) being a member of the European Union (EU) outweigh the costs. In short, giving the advantages and disadvantages of UK being part of the EU. This essay will start with a brief definition of Economic Integration. Followed by, a general introduction about the economy of EU and the UK. Lastly, stating the advantages and disadvantages for UK, being a member of the EU. Read MoreBritains Economic Consequences Of The British Exit From The European Union1595 Words   |  7 Pagesthe UK; still there are some significant drawbacks. At the same time, there are factors that limit any possible prediction of the economic consequences of the British exit from the European Union. Nonetheless, in this work main areas affected by the possible British exit such as fiscal contribution, trade tariffs, non-tariff regulations, investment, migration and transition and disruption costs will be considered one by one and overall assessment will be provided. First of all, there are certainRead MoreEu vs Nafta1729 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract The paper addresses important concerns of the European Union and the NAFTA, NAFTA’s functional structure. A brief introduction if NAFTA and EU confront one another. Executive Summary Some would doubt that the formation of NAFTA was the American response to the European Single Act that formed the EU, which is made up of 27 countries. There is nothing to gain for both the blocs. However in some areas, â€Å"peaceful co-existence† and some form of â€Å"stricter ties† between the EU and NAFTA wouldRead MoreAn Internal Market Within The European Union1646 Words   |  7 PagesA) Regarding to free movement of goods, the issue here where German company ‘Konfekt’ against the importing state Finland and UK which involve with The Treaty On The Functioning Of The European Union (TFEU) . First in Gaston Schul define an internal market within the European Union as â€Å"the elimination of all obstacles to intra-Community trade in order to merge the national markets into a single market bringing about conditions as close as possible to those of a genuine internal market†. ‘Goods’Read MoreThe Impact Of Globalization On Business Activity Communications And Movements Of Individuals Over The National, Political And Geographic Boundaries1401 Words   |  6 PagesGlobalisation, in the most basic sense, could be defined as the growth of business activity communications and movements of individuals over the national, political and geographic boundaries (Johnson et al. 2014). According to Hill, there are two main facets of globalization, in cludes globalization of markets and production (Hill, Cronk, Wickramasekera, 2014). The historically different and distinctive national markets are integrating into a single huge global marketplace in which the perceptionsRead MoreQuestions On International Trade Liberalisation991 Words   |  4 Pageseconomy, encouraging domestic spending and production, and restraining trade with other nations through tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas and other restrictive government regulations (Fouda, R. 2012). At the other end of the scale, we have free trade, a system which favours the exchange of goods and Nowadays, this is the predominant system in Europe, promoted by the EU both in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) context and bilaterally with certain regions. There are three basic approachesRead MoreBritain Of The European Union1476 Words   |  6 PagesThe issue of Britain remaining in the European Union, and the consequences of a potential British exit- sometimes shortened to â€Å"Brexit†- from the European Union, have come to the forefront of public debate. While some say that Britain’s egress from the EU would benefit it economically, others argue that the contrary is true, and that there would be detrimental economic consequences for Britain and Europe. In truth, the issue is much more complex and multifaceted. Brexit must be looked at in termsRead MoreGlobalization and the Multinational Corporation: Multiple Choice Questions1378 Words   |  6 Pageseffort to promote free trade? A) World Trade Organization B) the Sarbanes-Oxley Act C) multilateral development banks D) the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Answer: A 2) Which one of the following is an investment from which the payoff over time is derived from the performance of an underlying asset? A) a common stock certificate B) a derivative security C) a corporate bond D) a mortgage bond Answer: B 3) What is the name for the shifting of non-strategic functionsRead MoreThe Impact of the Changing Political and Legal Environment, with the Establishment of the European Union on Trade Between Europe and South Africa2900 Words   |  12 PagesTHE IMPACT OF THE CHANGING POLITICAL AND LEGAL ENVIRONMENT, WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ON TRADE BETWEEN EUROPE AND SOUTH AFRICA. by LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT ITEM CODE: ONB 10X8 LECTURER: ABSTRACT The establishment of the European Union influenced trade between the former common market (European Economic Community) and South Africa. This changing political and legal environment enhanced opportunities for trade and logistics activity in South Africa. There are also possibleRead MorePortugal Case Study890 Words   |  4 Pagesconsumption. As can be seen, Portugal’s economic growth supported by a recovery in investment shows that Portugal is in the right path. Moreover, even though Portugal’s banking system is still vulnerable, the ongoing fiscal discipline proves that the Portuguese government wants to maintain the fiscal consolidation and does not want to repeat the same mistakes of previous governments, whose mismanagement of the economy and the public finances in 2000-2007 played a major role in Portugal’s financial crisis

Success The Nurture Achievement - 1361 Words

Success: The Nurture Achievement According to the Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell views success as a byproduct of history and community, of opportunity and legacy (285). Although everyone tries to become successful in their life, not all of them get their success because they all have different backgrounds, grow in different environments and different cultures. Moreover, these different situations determine a person’s success by providing different chances. So, the many opportunities the environment provide, the more successful they become. Therefore, success is derived from the environment, and people achieve it through nurture because the community and family supports give a lot of chances, benefits and encouragements that make them become†¦show more content†¦In addition, my evidence is important because I am trying to say that he had reached his way too superior in programming than anyone at that time. Thus, that superiority in the programming field gave him a chance to obtain a lot of experiences com pared to other people in that period of time. Without that best environment, supports and the first biggest opportunity that he got at Lakeside, he wasn’t famous and successful in his life. As the result, the opportunities and experiences that people get from their environments are the main reasons for them to attain their success. Although people were not born from the wealthy family backgrounds, the situations such as policy changes and depression period also help their weakness to turn into their success. In Chapter Five, Gladwell explains how Joe Flom’s life turned out to be famous and an expert in a law firm because he involved in the situation when the old law firm was fallen and the new law policy was created. Since Flom was the Jewish when Jews were heavily discriminated against, it was really hard to become a lawyer in the old-line law firms. Then, the old-line law firms had corporate lawyers who represented country’s largest companies, and they handled the taxes and the legal work behind the issuing of stocks. However, they didn’t do litigation and proxy fight because they did not deal with the hostile corporate takeovers.

Displacement and doubt in post

Displacement and doubt in post-colonial literature Essay Whilst ambivalent to her identity, it can be said that Senior manipulated her creole language to have a wider range of people who themselves are as indecisive and culturally dynamic and as well, mark her identity. The manipulation of characters in a literary piece can reflect the writers views as well as their innermost struggles and conflicts. In Hurricane Story 1903 it is noted that Granny is instilled and rooted with her Jamaican culture. Likewise, this relates to Senior herself who tries to hold onto her Caribbean roots whilst remaining in Canada, despite her uncertainty of belonging. Renu Juneja in her discussion about Contemporary Women Writers2, states that as reaction to their prolonged invisibility in Literature, the women writers have offered literary works expressed with a female autobiographical sensibility and reflecting their past experiences. Jean Rhys is another West Indian writer whose life parallels with that of Olive Senior and others in the African diaspora. As a white girl growing up in a predominantly black community in Dominica, Rhys experienced levels of isolations and rejection but she however did migrate to England, only returning once to her homeland. Though critics have described her attitudes towards her home country as ambivalent and uncertain based on her experiences, she faced an inner conflict of self-doubt and nostalgic feelings. In the poem, Meditation on Red, Olive Senior makes references to Rhyss life, characters and themes in her novels such as Wide Sargasso Sea where Senior feels the same sentiments and connects with Rhys and her experiences through the pieces that dealt with the issues of displacement and isolation. Growing up in rural Jamaica enabled Senior to be conscious of her environment that facilitated her to manipulate the Edenic imagery and gardening motif in Gardening in the Tropics. I think one of the things that have also shaped my sensibilities as a writer is the intense beauty of the country in which I grew up in as I have internalized this landscape. Not lost on me as a child was the fact that the beautiful landscape marked a lot of hardship and pain and so on. 3 The landscape and scenery of her homeland symbolized the painful experiences by those Senior considered her people and as well represented her quest to dig into her own insecurities and uncertainties regarding her identity and place in society. It can be argued that the nostalgic reminiscence is presented in Meditation on Yellow where Senior writes I want to feel mellow, in that three oclock yellow where she muses on the suns glow at that time of the afternoon in such a tropical setting. This greatly contrasts to her environment now in Canada which varies drastically. It can be argued that Senior, though feeling displaced in her homeland and society on a whole, still admires and yearns for her country as this is seen in the gardening motif throughout Gardening in the Tropics. Bruce King in his introduction of the book, West Indian Literature, states that West Indian Literature is more about coming to terms with exile, rapid change and the desire to belong in a region of the world Many female West Indian writers of the African diaspora are subject to this exact sentiment and thus release their frustration and uncertainty through their work. Olive Senior and others effectively utilize their creative literary techniques to often display their feelings of displacement and ambivalence throughout their work. This is in fact often done, not as means of wanting to but instead fulfilling a need to provide a voice to others who may feel such ambivalence, likewise as Jean Rhys connected to Olive Senior. .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 , .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 .postImageUrl , .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 , .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1:hover , .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1:visited , .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1:active { border:0!important; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1:active , .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1 .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5274feeb33ba661e45214c9ef9dc1cb1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 EssayWord Count: 1,211 words.References Books Chamberlin, Edward (1993). Come Back to Me, My Language. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Dawes, Kwame (2001). Talk yuh talk: Interwiews with Anglophone Caribbean poets. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Gilbert, Helen ; Joanna Tompkins (1996). Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics. London: Routledge. King, Bruce Alvin (1995). West Indian Literature. London: Macmillan Publishers. Morris, Merlvyn (2005). Making West Indian Literature. Kingston 6, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers. Nasta, Sushiela (1992). Motherlands: Black womens writing from Africa the Caribbean and South Asian. New Brunswick, Canada: Rutgers University Press. Scott, Helen C. (2006). Caribbean Women Writers and Globalization. London: Ashgate Pub Co. Websites Prose Quotes. Retrieved January 3, 2012, from http://thinkexist. com/quotes/with/keyword/prose Dawes Kwame, Kwame Dawes: The Use of Poetry (January 10, 2011), Retrieved January 2, 2012, from http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=-FTJ7imc2ag;feature=related Ramon Paredes, Aristotles Definition of Tragedy. Retrieved January 2, 2012 from http://www. paredes. us/tragedy. html 1 Sushiela Nasta Motherlands: Black womens writing from Africa the Caribbean and South Asian 2 Chapter 8, Contemporary Women Writers, West Indian Literature 3 Quote from Olive Senior in an interview with Kwame Dawes in, Talk Yuh Talk .